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Many wallets will place spending outputs first and change outputs second, leaking information about both the sender and receiver’s finances to passive blockchain observers. Such information should remain private not only for the benefit of consumers, but in higher order financial systems must be kept secret to prevent fraud. A researcher recently demonstrated this principle when he detected that Bitstamp leaked information when creating exchange transactions, enabling potential espionage among traders. For example, a wallet client might naively order inputs based on when addresses were added to a wallet by the user through importing or random generation. Currently, there is no clear standard for how wallet clients ought to order transaction inputs and bitcoin outputs. Since wallet clients are left to their own devices to determine this ordering, they often leak information about their users’ finances.

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It included EIP-649: Metropolis Difficulty Bomb Delay and Block Reward Reduction, where the Ice Age (see below) was delayed by 1 year and the block reward was reduced from 5 to 3 ether. The first of two hard forks for the Metropolis development stage.

In the event of two matching output amounts, the respective output scriptPubKeys (as a byte-array) will be compared lexicographically, in ascending order. Transaction output amounts (as 64-bit unsigned integers) are to be sorted in ascending order. If the scriptPubKeys match, the outputs are considered equal.

For more information, see https://github.com/ethereum/EIPs (see also "ERC"). A design document providing information to the Ethereum community, describing a proposed new feature or its processes or environment. Ethereum Improvement Proposal.

imageSword Blockchain Director btc comments "We are convinced that crypto-assets and particularly security tokens will have a major role to play in tomorrow's banking ecosystem. Becoming a corporate baker on Tezos is evidence of that conviction and represents a further step towards blockchain adoption."

As a result, wallet clients often have a discernible blockchain fingerprint, and can leak private information about their users. Currently there is no standard for bitcoin wallet clients when ordering transaction inputs and outputs. By contrast, a standard for non-deterministic sorting could be difficult to audit. This document proposes deterministic lexicographical sorting, using hashes of previous transactions and output indices to sort transaction inputs, as well as values and scriptPubKeys to sort transaction outputs.

For the sake of efficiency, transaction hashes should be compared first before output indices, since output indices from different transactions are often equivalent, while all bytes of the transaction hash are effectively random variables. [3] For sorting inputs, the hash of the previous transaction and the output index within that transaction are sufficient for sorting purposes; each transaction hash has an extremely high probability of being unique in the blockchain — this is enforced for coinbase transactions by BIP30 — and output indices within a transaction are unique. Transaction inputs are defined by the hash of a previous transaction, the output index of a UTXO from that previous transaction, the size of an unlocking script, the unlocking script, and a sequence number.

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Will Bitcoin really disintermediate the banks? We’ve been asking that question about a lot of what’s in the crypto universe since it launched. Will these DeFi lending platforms do anything? Will Ethereum really have a layer that allows for transactions and tokens everywhere? Will these digital avatar JPEG thingies make me rich?

imageTransactions that use SIGHASH_ANYONECANPAY and/or SIGHASH_NONE may include inputs and/or outputs that are not signed; however, compliant software should still emit transactions with lexicographically sorted inputs and outputs, even though they may later be modified by others. This BIP applies to any transaction for which the order of its inputs and outputs does not impact the transaction’s function. Currently, this refers to any transaction that employs the SIGHASH_ALL signature hash type, in which signatures commit to the exact order of inputs and outputs.

Atomic Multipath Payments was an early suggestion for a multipart payment protocol which did not get implemented but introduced the idea of splitting a single payment into multiple parts and send them along potentially different paths.

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